Training Tips
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Training Tips

Gybing a 29er

Gybing a 29er

Aim – perform 10 really good gybes in a row

What to look for – smooth roll, with the rig moving from one side to the other

without any wobbles

How – keeping the spinnaker full

Who – division of tasks, break them down into small units

No matter what the manoeuvre, always aim to perform it smoothly. The only thing that changes as the breeze increases, is that the time taken to perform the action will decrease. Imagine someone who is on a coach boat behind you looking directly along the centreline of the 29er and watching the rig move across the skyline. It should be steady at all times and during tacks and gybes, the rig should move in a smooth arc, particularly in light air so that the airflow across the sails can stay attached and generate power.

Light air gybing is quite easy, providing you understand that the angle of the breeze changes as you swing the boat through the gybe.

Try a simple exercise taking the boat through a gybe slowly and then more quickly. You will find that in very light air your gybing angle will be around 140°. As you take the boat through the gybe slowly, the spinnaker will collapse, the boat will slow down and it will take quite a long time for the sails to fill with air again. But if you swing the boat quickly through the gybe, holding the spinnaker until it backs before allowing it to fall past the forestay and set on the new gybe, you will maintain your speed for longer. You will also find that once you are settled on the new gybe you will be able to bear away a few degrees.

29er gybing


The lighter the breeze, the more critical it becomes to understand Apparent Wind. This is because the boatspeed you are generating downwind will often be greater than the actual breeze strength, so the direction of the wind will change substantially as you sail along. This is why the mainsail almost never gets eased right out, even when the wind is coming from behind.

Your wind indicator at the top of the mast is a very useful guide as to the direction of the apparent wind, so it’s a good idea to have something up there that is quite sensitive in light air.

Coming back to gybing in light air, as you turn the boat downwind and through the gybe, the boat will slow down and the apparent wind will then change substantially back towards the True Wind direction. So it is really important that the turn is smooth and consistent, otherwise the spinnaker will collapse and it will take a very long time to build boatspeed again.

It should take no longer than 1½ to 2 seconds to go from a full spinnaker on one gybe, to a full spinnaker on the new gybe.

Nicky Bethwaite


By Nicky Bethwaite

2-8 knots or 1-4m/s

Exercises on the Water for 1 boat


Aim – perform 10 really good tacks in a row

What to look for – smooth roll, with the rig moving from one side to the other without any wobbles

Practise half the tack first by rounding up to the head-to-wind position and then falling back to the original course.  Usually the helm will say something like – ‘ready to tack?’.  It’s a good idea for the helm to wait for an acknowledgement from the crew (‘ready’) so that you both move together.  Analyse who is going to move first and how much.  So that minimal rudder is used, the boat should be heeled to leeward first, helping it to round up.  Practise this a few times until you’ve got it smooth.  Tip – take one big step across the boat instead of several small ones as this has a bigger effect in less time.

When you’re happy with half the tack, go ahead and complete it.  Usually the turn in the first half of the tack is a bit slower than the turn out.  As the boat goes past head to wind, the helm settles the boat onto its new course which may be a few degrees lower than necessary so that you can build speed.  This is only desirable in 4kts and under, above this there is no advantage in turning the boat past the ideal windward course.

There is co-ordination required between the forward hand and helm so that both the jib and main are eased a little going through the tack and are brought on together as the boat settles onto its new course. The main will probably have to be sheeted on quite sharply so as to ‘pop’ the battens through. Do this at the same time as bringing the boat upright in quite a quick movement but it’s really important to keep it smooth. For maximum effect, the boat should be brought upright at the same time as the sails are sheeted on as this will give maximum acceleration up to full speed.  In light air, it is a good idea for the helm to handle the mainsheet through the tack.

Light air tacking



In 2-4kts (1-2m/s) you can expect to tack through an angle of around 100°.  As the breeze increases, the angle will decrease so that in 5-8kts (2.5-4m/s) you should be looking at 90°.  The best way to guess this angle is for the helm to take a look over his/her shoulder before the tack and pick a point on the shore that is about where you’d expect the bow to be pointing after the tack.

The helm should always be facing forward during the tack and as the bow approaches the point you have picked, slow the turn down and bring the rig upright.  If you don’t have a shore as an indicator, use the jib as a reference point, so that as it fills the boat stops turning.  Your tack in light air will be slower than in stronger breeze.  It is really important not to turn the boat too far, otherwise you waste a lot of time and distance coming back up to course.

As a guide, in 2-4kts (1-2m/s), the time taken to tack (full speed to full speed) is around 12 seconds. In 5-8kts (2.5-4m/s) it decreases to approximately 8s. If the water is rough then it takes a little longer.